Liberal Education

Higher Education in Peril? Predictions and Reality

A Moody’s Investor Service report in 2015 shocked many in higher education by predicting institutional closures would outpace mergers. The report also highlighted financial struggles, including that “small colleges with a sustained three-year growth rate of less than 2 percent increased fivefold, to 50 percent, from 2006 to 2014.”

Instigating fears further, Clay Christensen predicted half of colleges and universities would go bankrupt or close within a decade. Each year brings more financial trouble: a quarter of all private nonprofit institutions experienced deficits in 2017. More than two-thirds (68 percent) of financial officers at four-year private colleges reported their tuition discount rate was unsustainable. The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) estimated average discount rates for first-time, full-time freshmen students attending four-year private, nonprofit colleges was 49.1 percent in 2016–17, and preliminary estimates for 2017–18 indicate a 49.9 percent discount rate.

Variables identified as predictors of closures and mergers include unsustainable tuition discounts, frail endowments and lackluster fundraising, enrollments of fewer than one thousand students, missions misaligned with diversifying student demographics, and rural campus environments. Will these variables lead to closures and provoke similar institutions to consider mergers? Moody’s 2015 prediction has yet to occur, and this issue of Liberal Education examines a sample of new ideas and attempts to restructure institutions.

The following table briefly summarizes institutional interventions, many implemented to forestall a closure or merger and to help expand financial security. This list was compiled by analyzing published reports and, in some cases, cross-checked with a list of institutional closures from the US Department of Education’s Federal Student Aid (FSA) office. FSA records are compiled from institutional self-reporting and do not always account for sudden changes. References for this introduction and the following table can be found at the end of this article.

Click image below to view expanded table on institutional closures, mergers, and restructuring.

LEFA18_pp19-21_Table_sm.jpg

To respond to this article, email liberaled@aacu.org with the author’s name on the subject line.


BETHANY ZIMMERMAN is a program coordinator in the office of Quality, Curriculum, and Assessment at the Association of American Colleges and Universities.


REFERENCES

Introduction

Federal Student Aid: An Office of the U.S. Department of Education. “Closed School Weekly/MonthlReports.” Last modified October 1, 2018. https://www2.ed.gov/offices/OSFAP/PEPS/closedschools.html.

Inside Higher Ed. “The Growing Role of Mergers in Higher Ed.” Last modified June 21, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/content/growing-role-mergers-higher-ed.

Jaschik, Scott. “Are Prospective Students About to Disappear? New book says most colleges – and the vast majority of nonelite institutions – are about to face severe shortage of potential students.” Inside Higher Ed, January 8, 2018.https://www.insidehighered.com/admissions/article/2018/01/08/new-book-argues-most-colleges-are-about-face-significant-decline .

Lederman, Doug. “Clay Christensen, Doubling Don: Despite emerging questions about applicability of his ‘disruption’ theory, the business guru still believes half of colleges could close in a decade, driven by the spread of online learning.” Inside Higher Ed, April 28, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/article/2017/04/28/clay-christensen-sticks-predictions-massive-college-closures.

Lederman, Doug. “A Quarter of Private Colleges Ran Deficits in 2017.” Inside Higher Ed, June 27, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2018/06/27/quarter-private-colleges-ran-deficits-2017.

Lederman, Doug. “Peril for Small Private Colleges: A Survey of Business Officers.” Inside Higher Ed, July 20, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/survey/peril-private-colleges-survey-business-officers.

National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). “Average Freshman Tuition Discount Rate Nears 50 Percent.” Press Release, April 30, 2018. https://www.nacubo.org/Press-Releases/2018/Average-Freshman-Tuition-Discount-Rate-Nears-50-Percent.

Seltzer, Rick. “Discounting Keeps Climbing: The average first-time, full-time discount rate edged even closer to 50 percent in 2016-17 as net tuition revenue and enrollment struggled.” Inside Higher Ed, May 15, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/05/15/private-colleges-and-universities-increase-tuition-discounting-again-2016-17.

Seltzer, Rick. “Days of Reckoning. Recent closures make it more likely a trend of private college consolidation has started. Institutions feeling particular pressure are small colleges, those in the Midwest and Roman Catholic institutions located away from Catholic population centers.” Inside Higher Ed, November 13, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/11/13/spate-recent-college-closures-has-some-seeing-long-predicted-consolidation-taking.

Seltzer, Rick. “Moody’s: Private-College Closures at 11 Per Year.” Inside Higher Ed, July 25, 2018a. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2018/07/25/moodys-private-college-closures-11-year.

Seltzer, Rick. “’This Isn’t Just a Financial Problem:’ CFOs need board and presidential support to put turnaround plans in place, presenters at the annual business officers’ meeting say.” Inside Higher Ed, July 25, 2018b. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/07/25/cfos-are-key-college-turnaround-plans-they-cant-do-it-alone.

Woodhouse, Kellie. “Closures to Triple: The inability of small colleges to increase their revenue will result in triple the number of closures in the coming years, a new Moody’s report projects.” Inside Higher Ed, September 28, 2015. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/09/28/moodys-predicts-college-closures-triple-2017.

Woodhouse, Kellie. “ Mergers on the Rise? As institutions struggle with enrollment and money, more join forces or consider doing so. But sometimes a merger is really more of an absorption.” Inside Higher Ed, July 7, 2015. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/07/07/colleges-struggle-some-look-partnerships-and-mergers-relief .


Table

Antioch College News. “Four years after closure, Antioch College to welcome its second class.”

October 1, 2012. http://www.antiochcollege.edu/news/archive/four-years-after-closure-antioch-college-welcome-its-second-class.

Baker College. “Modern education with a history of excellence. Putting students first for over a century. History, 2019. https://www.baker.edu/about/get-to-know-us/history.

Bangert, Dave. “Shuttered St. Joe’s College clears final debt, settles Sodexo’s $1.3 million fraud lawsuit.” Journal & Courier, November 30, 2018. https://www.jconline.com/story/news/2018/11/30/st-joes-college-settles-sodexos-1-3-million-fraud-lawsuit/2161680002/.

Beifuss, John. “Citing declining enrollment and real estate debt, Memphis College of Art announces impending closure.” Commercial Appeal, October 24, 2017. https://www.commercialappeal.com/story/news/2017/10/24/memphis-college-art-close/794024001/.

Cox, Peter. “As school faces closure, one last graduating class.” MPR News, December 16, 2017. https://www.mprnews.org/story/2017/12/16/as-school-faces-closure-one-last-graduating-class.

Crittenden, Jack. “Northwestern cutting back on staff after years of adding faculty.” National Jurist, November 12, 2018. http://www.nationaljurist.com/national-jurist-magazine/northwestern-cutting-back-staff-after-years-adding-faculty.

Flaherty, Colleen. “’Hastily and Without Consultation:’ Philosophers object to Claremont Graduate's decision to close its department and terminate tenured professors. Some see loss of an essential program.” Inside Higher Ed, July 17, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/07/17/philosophers-object-claremont-graduate-decision-close-its-philosophy-department-and.

Flaherty, Colleen. “Refusing to Be Their Own Executioners.” Inside Higher Ed, February 11, 2019. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/02/11/linfield-college-moving-forward-plan-cut-its-faculty-apparently-or-without.

Fosmoe, Margaret. “Holy Cross College officials say finances have stabilized: Changes made over to ensure school’s future.” South Bend Tribune, September 4, 2017. https://www.southbendtribune.com/news/education/holy-cross-college-officials-say-finances-have-stabilized/article_329c9f2c-1cc4-5f9e-8c62-8fa025658bc3.html.

Garber, Nick. “Middlebury College making plans for staff reductions.” Addison County Independent, July 16, 2018. http://www.addisonindependent.com/201807middlebury-college-making-plans-staff-reductions.

Hackett, Audrey. “Antioch College – a small college, at least for now.” Online Edition of the Yellow Spring News, May 18, 2017. https://ysnews.com/news/2017/05/antioch-college-a-small-college-at-least-for-now.

Hinton, Rachel. “DePaul University lays off dozens of staff: Declining enrollment is one possible cause of staff layoffs this week at DePaul University.” Chicago Sun Times, June 11, 2018. https://chicago.suntimes.com/news/depaul-university-lays-off-dozens-of-staff/.

Jaquiss, Nigel. “How Marylhurst University’s Budget Fell Apart: Some of the problems that led to the abrupt announcement are becoming clearer. One was a partnership with a Portland coding school called Epicodus.” Willamette Week, May 23, 2018. https://www.wweek.com/news/2018/05/23/how-marylhurst-universitys-budget-fell-apart/

Jaschik, Scott. Another Small College Will Close: Memphis College of Art, after 81 years, will end operations.” Inside Higher Ed, October 25, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/10/25/memphis-college-art-announces-it-will-close.

Jaschik, Scott. “Another Small Private College Will Close: St. Gregory’s, an Oklahoma institution founded in 1875, will cease operations at the end of the semester.” Inside Higher Ed, November 9, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/11/09/st-gregorys-university-announces-plans-end-operations.

Jaschik, Scott. “Small Black College Will Close: Concordia in Alabama, the only Lutheran HBCU, will end operations. It is second small religious college to announce closure in a week. Inside Higher Ed, February 23, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/02/23/concordia-alabama-historically-black-college-announces-it-will-shut-down-operations.

Jaschik, Scott. “Another Small College Closing: Mount Ida, after failed attempt at merger, will shut down. It is third college in 2018 to announce it will close.” Inside Higher Ed, April 9, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/04/09/mount-ida-after-trying-merger-will-shut-down.

Jaschik, Scott. “Accreditor Places Sweet Briar on Warning Status.” Inside Higher Ed, June 18, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2018/06/18/accreditor-places-sweet-briar-warning-status.

Keller, Rudi. “University of Missouri curators remain focused on finances.” Columbia Daily Tribune. September 20, 2018. https://www.columbiatribune.com/news/20180920/university-of-missouri-curators-remain-focused-on-finances?rssfeed=true.

Kowalski, Allison. “One-third of Corcoran faculty, staff face unemployment.” The GW Hatchet, July 14, 2014. https://www.gwhatchet.com/2014/07/14/one-third-of-corcoran-staff-faculty-to-be-unemployed-next-month/.

Krantz, Laura. “Mount Ida president blames closure on Lassell College maneuvers.” Boston

Globe, July 9, 2018. https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2018/07/09/ida-president-blames-closure-lasell-college-maneuvers/OozzVVVBlzPsiosx0wyFiN/story.html.

Krantz, Laura. “Citing finances, accreditors put Newbury College on probation.” Boston Globe, August 20, 2018. https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2018/08/20/newbury-college-put-probation/qYKRZeCIPO3wEz2uBvZBDO/story.html.

Krantz, Laura. “Hampshire College puts freshman class in doubt, merger on the table.” Boston Globe, January 15, 2019. https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2019/01/15/hampshire-college-facing-financial-pressure-considers-merger/hKHgkWoZ1Ca5bs952kknCL/story.html

Krantz, Laura, and Deirdre Fernandes. “Newbury College to shut down in the spring.” Boston Globe, December 14, 2018. https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2018/12/14/newbury-college-shut-down-spring/s2w8WjwpFXAqUsyNUsjixM/story.html?s_campaign=breakingnews:newsletter.

Lederman, Doug. “Oregon’s Marylhurst University to Close.” Inside Higher Ed, May 18, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/05/18/another-college-marylhurst-closes-one-not-northeast-or-midwest.

Leighton, Paul. “New president says Montserrat ‘in a great place.’” The Salem News, November 18, 2018. https://www.salemnews.com/news/local_news/new-president-says-montserrat-in-a-great-place/article_b5087cdc-7eb3-5e22-b3fa-39037954ac48.html.

Maine’s Business News Source. “Saint Joseph’s College lands $180K grant to spur interest in STEM fields.” September 5, 2018. http://www.mainebiz.biz/article/20180905/NEWS01/180909983/saint-joseph%E2%80%99s-college-lands-$180k-grant-to-spur-interest-in-stem-fields.

McNutt, K.S. “University of Oklahoma President David Boren says OU debt is large, but comparable to similar public universities.” Newsok, June 21, 2018. https://newsok.com/article/5598772/university-of-oklahoma-president-david-boren-says-ou-debt-is-large-but-comparable-to-similar-public-universities.

McNutt, K.S. “University of Oklahoma will take a year to rebuild budget.” Newsok, September 13, 2018. https://newsok.com/article/5608084/university-of-oklahoma-will-take-a-year-to-rebuild-budget.

Middlebury Newsroom. “Middlebury Welcomes New Faculty.” September 12, 2018. http://www.middlebury.edu/newsroom/archive/2018-news/node/592356.

Moran, Catherine, and Ellie Smith. “Corcoran, arts departments to merge next summer.” The GW Hatchet, February 18, 2016. https://www.gwhatchet.com/2016/02/17/corcoran-arts-departments-to-merge-next-summer/.

Morin, Travis R. “St. Anselm College eliminates staff amid financial difficulties.” New Hampshire Union Leader, May 26, 2018. http://201-ulweb.newscyclecloud.com/education/st-anselm-college-eliminates-staff-amid-financial-difficulties--20180525

Morin, Travis R. “Budget forecasting error led to St. Anselm layoffs, college president takes responsibility.” New Hampshire Union Leader, June 12, 2018. http://201-ulweb.newscyclecloud.com/education/budget-forecasting-error-led-to-st-anselm-layoffs-college-president-takes-responsibility-20180612

New Haven Register. “UNH to stop teaching art in Lyme; Lyme Acadamey may revert to non-degree-granting art academy.” August 13, 2018. https://www.nhregister.com/news/article/UNH-to-stop-teaching-art-in-Lyme-Lyme-Academy-13153594.php.

O’Connell, Scott. “Atlantic Union College in Lancaster will close.” Telegram, February 21, 2018. http://www.telegram.com/news/20180221/atlantic-union-college-in-lancaster-will-close.

Palmer, Kathryn. “MU lays off 30, eliminates 155 vacant positions amid $45.4 million budget cut.” Columbia Missourian, June 7, 2018. https://www.columbiamissourian.com/news/higher_education/mu-lays-off-eliminates-vacant-positions-to-close-budget-gap/article_03406c16-69c3-11e8-8322-939f11d82d95.html.

Park, Jeong. “St. Joe’s College explores possibility as a two-year college.” Lafayette Journal & Courier, September 5, 2018. https://www.jconline.com/story/news/2018/09/05/st-joes-st-josephs-college-marian-university-two-year-college-rensselaer/1202738002/.

Peller, Lauren, and Parth Kotak. “High costs, enrollment issues drive Corcoran student departures.” The GW Hatchet, April 23, 2018. https://www.gwhatchet.com/2018/04/23/high-costs-enrollment-issues-drive-corcoran-student-departures/.

Perez, Alan. “Budget cuts are made at the bottom, but the message is crafted up top.” The Daily Northwestern, November 30, 2018. https://dailynorthwestern.com/2018/11/30/lateststories/budget-cuts-are-made-at-the-bottom-but-the-message-is-crafted-up-top/.

Rendon-Alvarez, Karla. “’Catastrophic’: Former Mount Ida College Students File Class Action Lawsuit Against Close School.” New England Cable News, November 26, 2018. https://www.necn.com/news/new-england/Former-Mount-Ida-College-Students-File-Class-Action-Lawsuit-Against-Closed-School-501255912.html.

Rhodes, Dawn. “Its fundraising goal met, Northwestern University raises its target to $5 billion.” Chicago Tribune, September 6, 2018. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-met-northwestern-fundraising-goal-20180906-story.html.

Rhodes, Dawn. “DePaul and Harold Washington partner to a path to a four-year degree for CPS grads.” Chicago Tribune, December 4, 2018. https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-met-depaul-harold-washington-academy-20181204-story.html.

Robidoux, Carol. “Should NH Institute of Art and SNHY Merge?” Manchester Ink Link, June 27, 2014. https://manchesterinklink.com/public-meeting-proposed-nhiasnhu-merger/.

Robidoux, Carol. “New England College and New Hampshire Institute of Art announce merger.” Manchester Ink Link, May 29, 2018. https://manchesterinklink.com/new-england-college-and-new-hampshire-institute-of-art-announce-merger/.

Ruggles, Rick. “Christian school that hoped to move onto Dana campus in Blair still seeks OK, downsizes Plan.” Omaha World-Herald, September 14, 2018. https://www.omaha.com/news/education/higher-education/christian-school-that-hoped-to-move-onto-to-dana-campus/article_625d9537-3c0e-53f8-9070-e8dc6e317e2e.html.

Saint Joseph’s College. “Focused on Excellence: An Operational Plan 2016-2020.” Accessed from Inside Higher Ed, 2016. https://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/files/Final%20Operational%20Plan%2005_11_2016.pdf.

Scutari, Mike. “Grand Experiment: Behind An Influential Funder’s Big Bet on ‘Equitable Neighborhood Development.’” Inside Philanthropy, October 9, 2018. https://www.insidephilanthropy.com/home/2018/10/9/grand-experiment-behind-an-influential-funders-big-bet-on-equitable-neighborhood-development.

Seltzer, Rick. “A Cash Crisis and Collapse: Saint Joseph's will suspend operations, saying it lacks funds to continue without an overhaul. Many faculty members, students and alumni question how things got so dire. Inside Higher Ed, February 10, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/02/10/saint-josephs-plan-suspend-operations-prompts-questions-looking-ahead-and-behind.

Seltzer, Rick. “Deep cuts at Aquinas in Tennessee. About 60 of 76 faculty and staff members be out of their jobs.” Inside Higher Ed, March 13, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/03/13/aquinas-college-plans-shrink-and-focus-training-teachers.

Seltzer, Rick. “Holy Cross College to Sell Land to Notre Dame.” Inside Higher Ed, May 15, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2017/05/15/holy-cross-college-sell-land-notre-dame.

Seltzer, Rick. “Wheeling Jesuit Sells Campus to Diocese.” Inside Higher Ed, May 24, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2017/05/24/wheeling-jesuit-sells-campus-diocese.

Seltzer, Rick. “Eliminating Undergraduates: Facing budget shortfalls and enrollment declines, Marygrove College in Detroit makes an uncommon decision.” Inside Higher Ed, August 10, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/08/10/marygrove-college-end-undergraduate-programs-after-fall-semester.

Seltzer, Rick. “Another Small University Closing: Enrollment dropped by 100 this year, making it hard for leaders to see a path forward despite relocation plan.” Insider Higher Ed, October 4, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/10/04/grace-university-close-end-academic-year-after-enrollment-struggles.

Seltzer, Rick. “BU and Wheelock Reach Merger Agreement.” Inside Higher Ed, October 12, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2017/10/12/bu-and-wheelock-reach-merger-agreement.

Seltzer, Rick. “Sweet Briar’s Curriculum Comes at a Cost: Small private women's college is cutting more than 10 percent of its faculty as it overhauls curriculum.” Inside Higher Ed, December 19, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/12/19/sweet-briar-eliminating-tenured-faculty-positions-it-puts-new-curriculum-place

Seltzer, Rick. “Seeking Consensus for Earlham’s Future: A president's unexplained departure, a massive recurring deficit and fears for the liberal arts spark questions.” Inside Higher Ed, August 1, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/08/01/earlham-college-seeks-roll-back-expense-budget-decade-after-presidents-resignation.

Seltzer, Rick. “New Haven Ending Programs at Lyme Academy College of Fine Arts.” Inside Higher Ed, August 15, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2018/08/15/new-haven-ending-programs-lyme-academy-college-fine-arts.

Seltzer, Rick. “Ousters on President’s First Day: New president's deep cuts and broad reorganization are unusual for higher ed, even for a university saddled with debt and a cabinet some saw as unwieldy.” Inside Higher Ed, July 3, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/07/03/new-university-oklahoma-president-wastes-no-time-administrative-overhaul.

Seltzer, Rick. “Worries at Antioch College: Concerns rise over enrollment and finances at the storied small liberal arts college in Ohio.” Inside Higher Ed, July 6, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/07/06/antioch-college-survived-furloughs-and-salary-cuts-worries-remain.

Seltzer, Rick. “2 New Hampshire Colleges Will Merge in 2 Steps.” Inside Higher Ed, January 3, 2019. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2019/01/03/2-new-hampshire-colleges-will-merge-2-steps.

Seltzer, Rick. “Michigan College Consolidating Campuses.” Inside Higher Ed, January 15, 2019. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2019/01/15/michigan-college-consolidating-campuses.

Seltzer, Rick. “Checking All the Boxes, to No Avail.” Inside Higher Ed, January 25, 2019. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/01/25/green-mountain-college-tried-numerous-strategies-still-closing.

Seltzer, Rick, and Scott Jaschik. “Hampshire Won’t Admit More Students.” Inside Higher Ed, February 4, 2019. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/02/04/hampshire-college-wont-admit-additional-students

Shoreline Times. “Lyme Academy receives $1.1 million gift from estate of longtime benefactor.” November 30, 2018. http://www.shorelinetimes.com/news/lyme-academy-receives-million-gift-from-estate-of-longtime-benefactor/article_afffd991-c0ed-50c2-81ad-a26f7bd1207a.html.

Stendahl, Max. “BU-Wheelock merger will result in more than 100 layoffs.” Boston Business Journal, March 15, 2018. https://www.bizjournals.com/boston/news/2018/03/15/bu-wheelock-merger-will-result-in-more-than-100.html.

St. Gregory’s News. “University to close at end of fall 2017.” November 8, 2017.

Toppo, Greg. “Hiram Floats Interdisciplinary Redesign: Leaders at Ohio’s Hiram College are proposing a sweeping redesign of the liberal arts college, with plans to discontinue several bedrock majors including mathematics, philosophy, economics, art history, music and religious studies.” Inside Higher Ed, May 16, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/05/16/hiram-college-redesign-would-nix-majors-math-philosophy-economics-add.

Toppo, Greg. “Hampshire Struggles to Stay Afloat.” Inside Higher Ed, January 16, 2019. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2019/01/16/hampshire-college-looks-partner-may-not-enroll-freshmen-fall.

University of New Haven University News. “Lyme Academy College and University of New Haven announce affiliation agreement.” April 28, 2014. https://www.newhaven.edu/news/releases/2014-2015/lyme-academy-college-and-university-of-new-haven-announce-affiliation-agreement.php

Verges, Josh. “McNally Smith founders dug deep into own pockets to keep college afloat, bankruptcy filings reveal.” Twin Cities Pioneer Press, April 23, 2018. https://www.twincities.com/2018/04/23/will-mcnally-smith-employees-students-get-their-money-key-bankruptcy-ruling-coming-soon/.

Welker, Grant. “Atlantic Union relying on faith in seeking college revival.” Worcester Business Journal, June 26, 2017. http://www.wbjournal.com/article/20170626/PRINTEDITION/ 306229995/atlantic-union-relying-on-faith-in-seeking-college-revival.

Whitford, Emma. “80 staff layoffs at Northwestern.” Inside Higher Ed, July 23, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2018/07/23/80-staff-layoffs-northwestern.

Whitford, Emma. “A New Vet School Professors Don’t Want: Long Island University, facing enrollment and programming cuts, is building a vet school even though its faculty members are dubious and New York State already has one at Cornell.” Inside Higher Ed, September 7, 2018. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/09/07/long-island-university-building-vet-school-despite-staff-cuts-and-declining.

Williams, Jessica. “Loyola University lays off staff, curbs retirement contributions to balance budget.” The New Orleans Advocate, July 16, 2018. https://www.theadvocate.com/new_orleans/news/education/article_fef93e42-894a-11e8-b5af-479d57eb19bb.html

Williams, Mará Rose, and Katy Bergen. “University of Missouri freshman enrollment jumps, but overall numbers are still down.” The Kansas City Star, August 20, 2018. https://www.kansascity.com/news/state/missouri/article217040390.html.

Woodhouse, Kellie. “No Choice But to Close? Marian Court College's president says after years of declining enrollment and tuition revenue, the institution ran out of options -- sooner than professors expected.” Inside Higher Ed, June 18, 2015. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/06/18/enrollment-declines-drove-closure-marian-court-college.

Woodhouse, Kellie. “Anatomy of Failed Merger: Negotiations to combine colleges are incredibly complex, as two Massachusetts institutions showed after abandoning a union that, while academically beneficial, would have been a financial drain. Here's how they reached that conclusion.” Inside Higher Ed, August 5, 2015. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/08/05/college-merger-negotiations-are-long-and-complicated.

Woodhouse, Kellie. “Hope for Sweet Briar? Virginia Supreme Court gives opponents of closure another shot at an injunction to keep the college going. But even if that strategy works, will there be students left to educate?” Inside Higher Ed, June 10, 2015. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/06/10/virginia-supreme-court-orders-lower-court-reconsider-injunction-stopping-sweet.

WWL-TV Channel 4, New Orleans’. “Loyola University New Orleans placed on probation by accreditation agency.” December 11, 2018. https://www.wwltv.com/article/news/local/orleans/loyola-university-new-orleans-placed-on-probation-by-accreditation-agency/289-622892889.

Young, Colin A. “Newbury College to shut its doors after spring semester.” The Salem News, December 14, 2018. https://www.salemnews.com/news/newbury-college-to-shut-its-doors-after-spring-semester/article_6b3ac01e-ffd2-11e8-b72d-2309a8f3a1c6.html.

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